A tardy advance by a large number of Union soldiers into the foot-deep crater it created allowed the Southerners time to recover.
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They poured fired into the densely packed Federals; eventually, the fighting was hand-to-hand. Angered by the blast and the presence of black troops, the Confederates gave no quarter and the Battle of the Crater resulted in 4, Union casualties for no gain. Read more about the Battle Of Petersburg. After a victory at Lynchburg in June, Jubal A. A desperate delaying action on July 9 at Monocacy, Maryland, by an outnumbered force under Lew Wallace—the future author of Ben Hur—bought the capital time to prepare.
Lincoln came out to watch the fighting. When Grant went east his friend and subordinate, William Tecumseh Sherman , took command of the armies of the Tennessee and the Cumberland at Chattanooga. While Grant bludgeoned and sidestepped his way toward Richmond, Sherman was slugging through the mountains of North Georgia. There, Confederate general Joseph Johnston made superb use of terrain to slow the Federal advance. But gradually, his armies closed in on the rail center of Atlanta.
The capture of Atlanta was one of the most crucial events of the war. The Democrats had nominated George B. McClellan, the former commander of the Army of the Potomac, as their candidate. The party made many missteps during the campaign, and for the first time ever, the North allowed soldiers to vote in the field. Sherman left Atlanta November 15 on his march to the sea. He reached Savannah by Christmas, leaving a mile wide swath of ashes, wrecked railroads and utter destruction behind him.
Sherman detached George Thomas and the Army of the Cumberland to deal with him. At the town of Franklin, Hood ordered frontal assaults that after five hours of intense fighting, left his army in tatters; five generals were dead. After an ice storm melted, Thomas came out of his works and finished the job of shattering the Confederate army.
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Its remnants withdrew to Tupelo, Mississippi. Stories that his men massacred Union soldiers, particularly members of the United States Colored Troops captured at Fort Pillow , a poorly designed Mississippi River fort north of Memphis, gained instant credence in the North, but two official inquiries were unable to reach a conclusion about what had actually happened. At New Johnsonville, Tennessee, Forrest gained the distinction of commanding the only cavalry group ever to defeat gunboats, when they sunk or frightened crews into scuttling four ships. Farragut steamed into the Battle of Mobile Bay with 18 ships.
Full speed ahead! By the end of , the Confederacy had nothing left but courage and tenacity. The smoke rising above Georgia and the thousands of bodies strung out from Nashville to Atlanta to Petersburg and the gates of Washington said there would be no military victory. The South would fight on, no matter cost. The noose around the Confederacy was strangling it.
The port city of Wilmington followed a month later. When they reached South Carolina, where the rebellion had begun, any bit of restraint they may have shown elsewhere was pitched aside. What remained of the Confederate forces, once more under the command of Joseph Johnston, was far too small to stop the juggernaut. Before leaving Richmond, the Confederates set fire to the town. On April 9, at Appomattox Courthouse , after discovering Federals had beaten him to a supply cache, he surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to Grant.
Sherman extended even more generous terms than Grant had but endured the embarrassment of having to go back to Johnston with harsher conditions. Lincoln died the next morning, the first American president to be assassinated. Booth was shot weeks later while trying to escape from a barn in Virginia. All those captured who were believed to be his co-conspirators in the plot were hanged, including Mary Surratt, who owned the boarding house where the plotters met. One after another, the remaining Confederate forces surrendered.
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Only one Confederate was executed, Henry Wirtz, commander of the notorious prison camp at Andersonville. Officially known as Fort Sumter, Andersonville was the largest prison camp in the south and was infamous for its ill treatment of Union prisoners who lacked adequate food and medicine. Southerners have long protested that the death rate in Northern prison camps was higher than that of Andersonville, and Wirtz should not have been punished for war crimes.
Learn more about the Andersonville Prison Camp. There were numerous causes that led to the Civil War, many of which developing around the fact that the North was becoming more industrialized while the South remained largely agrarian. Some causes of the Civil War include:. There were over fifty major land battles and over ten thousand skirmishes, engagements and other military actions fought during the Civil War. Major Battles include:.
Several hundred generals were commissioned during the American Civil War in the Union and Confederate armies.
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These men led the troops into the battles that would ultimately decide the outcome of the war. Prominent Civil War Generals include:. Weapons were the instruments of war in the Civil War and often played a critical role in deciding many battles. Great advances came in the rifle, muskets, artillery, cannon and bullets, including the Minie Ball.
Weapons used in the Civil War include:. Women played an important role in the Civil War, playing the role of authors, as was the case of Harriet Beecher Stowe, abolitionists, civil rights activists, and nurses.
Prominent Civil War women include:. Some prominent Civil War armies include:. Abraham Lincoln was the central figure of the Civil War. He led the nation through the troubled years of until his assassination in , just before the war ended. The total number of casualties in the Civil War is not known precisely as records were not accurately kept during the era.
Most sources put the total casualties on the Union and Confederate sides at between , and , It is noted not only for its military success but for the sheer destruction inflicted on the south. Delivered soon after the union victory at the battle of Antietam, it freed all slaves in confederate states. The proclamation proved a great motivator for the northern war effort and gave the war a higher purpose. The Gettysburg Address, written by Abraham Lincoln and delivered after the battle of Gettysburg at the battlefield, is one of the most famous speeches in American History.
The common soldier of the Civil War varied greatly. Most were farmers, aged 18 to Most were white protestants though African Americans made up roughly 10 percent of the Union army. Most earned 11 dollars per month. The uniforms for the soldiers of the Civil War are generalized between the blue for the Union and grey for Confederates, but there were many variations depending on location and time period.
Washington victory at the Battle of Princeton helped to save the Patriot cause during one of its darkest hours.
A small selection of the most notable weapons, accoutrements, and gear that Washington used over the course of his long and distinguished career. This fast-paced, 4D production traces General Washington's important military victories at Boston, Trenton, and Yorktown. Attending the Second Continental Congress in military uniform, George Washington was appointed as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army by his fellow congressmen.
After his appointment as Commander-in-Chief in Philadelphia, Washington traveled to Cambridge, Massachusetts to take command of the newly formed Continental Army positioned around Boston. With the arrival of heavy guns from Fort Ticonderoga, Washington made the bold decision to place these artillery pieces upon Dorchester Heights. From this lofty position Washington could target the British ships in Boston harbor.
British attempts to deny the American's this position failed and the British forces departed Boston on March 17, Facing the prospect of a total defeat, Washington was able to save his remaining forces by shuttling them across the East River to Manhattan. Washington's lightning attack surprised the Hessians and led to the capture of almost two-thirds of the 1, man force - at the cost of zero American combat casualties. This victory greatly bolstered the sagging morale of the Continental Army. Howe was able to successfully flank the American forces holding positions across the Brandywine Creek near Chadds Ford.
Despite losing yet another battle to Gen. William Howe, Washington and his French allies were impressed with the vigor and determination shown by the Americans at the Battle of Germantown. Upon the conclusion of the Philadelphia Campaign, Washington led his poorly fed and weary army to winter quarters in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. Washington's army was ravaged by disease, cold, and sickness during its time in Valley Forge. Washington repeatedly asked Congress and other local magistrates for support of his wasting army.
While Valley Forge is more famous, the winter that Washington's army confronted in its winter quarters at Jockey Hollow, near Morristown, New Jersey, was the coldest in recent memory. It was here at Morristown that the Continental Army was nearly starved out of existence. The constant lack of food and the never-ending hard winter led to the mutiny of several Continental regiments. Washington declared that the army could "perish for want of food.
After deciding to take advantage of the arrival of the French West Indies fleet off the coast of Virginia and the precarious position of Lord Conwallis' army, Washington and Rochambeau agreed to march their armies south in a bold attempt to attack the isolated British garrison.source link
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After almost a month since the start of the American and French siege of Yorktown, Lord Cornwallis agrees to surrender his British and Hessian forces to Gen. This total victory over the British is the final major military action upon the continent. Aware of the growing dissatisfaction within his officer corps stationed near Newburgh, New York, Washington deftly confronted a group of officers planning to march on Congress. Asking to speak to the officers during their gathering at the "Temple", Washington's plea for patience and continued loyalty won over the conspirators and defused a potential military coup.